Reports and Studies
- Burley VJ et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of breast cancer in the UK women's cohort, Br J Cancer. 2010 Nov 23;103(11):1749-54. Epub 2010 Oct 19.
- Conclusion. "There is no evidence of an association between dietary acrylamide intake and breast cancer. A weak association may exist with premenopausal breast cancer, but requires further investigation."
- Pedersen G et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk, Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jul;122(1):199-210. Epub 2009 Dec 1.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which was initiated in 1986 enrolling 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. After 13.3 years of follow-up, 2225 incident breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status. No association was observed for overall breast cancer or receptor-negative breast cancer risk, irrespective of smoking status. A statistically non-significantly increased risk of ER positive, PR positive and joint receptor-positive breast cancer was found in never-smoking women. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.97, P (trend) = 0.26) for ER+, 1.47 (0.86-2.51, P (trend) = 0.14) for PR+, and 1.43 (0.83-2.46, P (trend) = 0.16) for ER+PR+, when comparing women in the highest quintile of acrylamide intake (median 36.8 microg/day) to women in the lowest (median 9.5 microg/day). This study showed some indications of a positive association between dietary acrylamide intake and receptor-positive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal never-smoking women. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our observations."
- Comment. These results are negative since the associations did not attain statistical significance.
- Schouten L et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of head-neck and thyroid cancers: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study, Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 1;170(7):873-84. Epub 2009 Aug 31.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical analysis of all relevant Dutch foods. Hazard ratios were adjusted for smoking and other confounders. After 16.3 years of follow-up, there were 101, 83, 180, and 66 cases of oral cavity, oro-hypopharynx, larynx, and thyroid cancer, respectively. Average daily dietary acrylamide intake was 21.8 microg (standard deviation, 12.1). Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with increased risk of oral cavity (hazard ratio (HR) per 10-microg intake/day = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 1.10), oro-hypopharynx (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), larynx (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.21), or thyroid (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.27) cancer. For nonsmokers, hazard ratios were not increased either. Dietary acrylamide was statistically significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity cancer in female nonsmokers, but case numbers were small. Dietary acrylamide intake was not positively associated with risk of head-neck and thyroid cancer, except with oral cavity cancer risk for female nonsmokers. A negative association for males was indicated."
- Larsson S et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and prostate cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish men, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jun;18(6):1939-41.
- Conclusion. "Results from this prospective study provide no evidence that dietary acrylamide in amounts typically consumed by Swedish men is associated with risk of prostate cancer."
- Hogervorst J et al., Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake, J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 May 6;101(9):651-62. Epub 2009 Apr 28.
- Conclusion. "Acrylamide intake was not associated with lung cancer risk in men but was inversely associated in women, most strongly for adenocarcinoma. This finding suggests that acrylamide is involved in human carcinogenesis through pathways other than genotoxicity."
- Hogervorst J et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 May;18(5):1663-6. Epub 2009 Apr 21.
- Conclusion. "In this prospective cohort study, acrylamide intake was not associated with brain cancer risk."
- WIlson K et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer, Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Apr 15;169(8):954-61. Epub 2009 Feb 18.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer."
- Larsson S et al., Long-term dietary acrylamide intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a prospective cohort of Swedish women, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar;18(3):994-7. Epub 2009 Feb 17.
- Conclusion. "The results from this prospective study provide no evidence that dietary acrylamide in amounts typically consumed by Swedish women is associated with the risk of ovarian cancer."
- Larsson S et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of men, Eur J Cancer. 2009 Mar;45(4):513-6. Epub 2009 Jan 2.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that causes cancer at multiple sites in animal models. However, whether dietary acrylamide intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer in humans is unclear. We examined the association between dietary acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer incidence in the Cohort of Swedish Men, a population-based prospective cohort of 45,306 men who completed a food-frequency questionnaire at enrolment in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, we ascertained 676 incident colorectal cancer cases. Compared with the lowest quartile of acrylamide intake (<29.6 microg/d), the multivariate rate ratios for the highest quartile (> or =41.7 microg/d) were 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.20) for colorectal cancer, 0.97 (95% CI 0.71-1.31) for colon cancer and 0.91 (95% CI 0.62-1.34) for rectal cancer. In conclusion, this study provides no evidence that dietary acrylamide in amounts typically consumed by Swedish men is associated with risk of colorectal cancer."
- Larsson S et al., Long-term dietary acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial cancer in a prospective cohort of Swedish women, Int J Cancer. 2009 Mar 1;124(5):1196-9.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide has been found in foods heated at high temperatures and there is evidence of carcinogenicity of acrylamide in experimental animals. However, the potential health risks of dietary acrylamide intake in humans remain uncertain. We examined the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the incidence of endometrial cancer among 61,226 participants of the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were cancer-free at enrollment in 1987-1990 and completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and again in 1997. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for endometrial cancer risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 17.7 years, a total of 687 incident cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in the cohort. We found no association between long-term acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial cancer. The multivariate rate ratio of endometrial cancer for women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake (mean, 33.8 microg/day) compared to those in the lowest quartile (mean, 15.9 microg/day) was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.76-1.21). The association did not vary materially by smoking status. In conclusion, these findings do not support the hypothesis that dietary acrylamide intake is positively associated with risk of endometrial cancer, at least not within the ranges of acrylamide consumed in this population."
- Larsson S et al., Long-term dietary acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women, Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Feb 1;169(3):376-81. Epub 2008 Nov 17.
- Abstract. "The association between dietary acrylamide intake and the incidence of invasive breast cancer was examined among 61,433 Swedish women who were cancer free and completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1987-1990 and again in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 17.4 years, a total of 2,952 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in the cohort. In multivariate analyses controlling for breast cancer risk factors, no statistically significant association was observed between long-term acrylamide intake (assessed at baseline and in 1997) and the risk of breast cancer, overall or by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. The multivariate rate ratios comparing extreme quartiles of acrylamide intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.02) for overall breast cancer, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.08) for ER+PR+ tumors, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.64) for ER+PR- tumors, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.38) for ER-PR- tumors. The association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk did not differ by smoking status. These findings for Swedish women do not support the hypothesis that dietary acrylamide is positively associated with risk of breast cancer, at least not within the ranges of acrylamide consumed by this population."
- Hogervorst J et al., Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk, J Nutr. 2008 Nov;138(11):2229-36.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk. In 1986, 120,852 men and women (aged 55-69 y) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. At baseline, a random subcohort of 5000 participants was selected for a case-cohort approach. Acrylamide intake was assessed with a FFQ at baseline and was based on acrylamide analyses in relevant Dutch foods. After 13.3 y of follow-up, 2190, 563, 349, and 216 cases of colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer, respectively, were available for analysis. The daily acrylamide intake of the subcohort was (mean +/- SD) 21.7 +/- 12.1 microg. A 10-microg/d increment of acrylamide intake was associated with multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard rate ratios (HR) (95% CI) of 1.00 (0.96-1.06), 1.02 (0.94-1.10), 1.06 (0.96-1.17), and 0.96 (0.85-1.09) for colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer, respectively. For former or never-smokers, the corresponding HR were: 1.03 (0.94-1.12), 1.09 (0.98-1.22), 1.07 (0.93-1.24), and 0.92 (0.76-1.11). There were some significantly increased risks within subgroups stratified by obesity, nonoccupational physical activity, and age, factors that were a priori selected based on their capacity to modify cytochrome P4502E1 activity. Overall, acrylamide intake was not associated with colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer risk, but some subgroups deserve further attention."
- Mucci L and Wilson K., Acrylamide intake through diet and human cancer risk, J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 13;56(15):6013-9. Epub 2008 Jul 15.
- Abstract. "More than one-third of the calories consumed by U.S. and European populations contain acrylamide, a substance classified as a "probable human carcinogen" based on laboratory data. Thus, it is a public health concern to evaluate whether intake of acrylamide at levels found in the food supply is an important cancer risk factor. Mean dietary intake of acrylamide in adults averages 0.5 microg/kg of body weight per day, whereas intake is higher among children. Several epidemiological studies examining the relationship between dietary intake of acrylamide and cancers of the colon, rectum, kidney, bladder, and breast have been undertaken. These studies found no association between intake of specific foods containing acrylamide and risk of these cancers. Moreover, there was no relationship between estimated acrylamide intake in the diet and cancer risk. Results of this research are compared with other epidemiological studies, and the findings are examined in the context of data from animal models. The importance of epidemiological studies to establish the public health risk associated with acrylamide in food is discussed, as are the limitations and future directions of such studies."
- Olesen P et al., Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Int J Cancer. 2008 May 1;122(9):2094-100.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed in several foods during high-temperature processing. So far, epidemiological studies have not shown any association between human cancer risk and dietary exposure to acrylamide. The purpose of this study was to conduct a nested case control study within a prospective cohort study on the association between breast cancer and exposure to acrylamide using biomarkers. N-terminal hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide in red blood cells were analyzed (by LC/MS/MS) as biomarkers of exposure on 374 breast cancer cases and 374 controls from a cohort of postmenopausal women. The adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide were similar in cases and controls, with smokers having much higher levels (approximately 3 times) than nonsmokers. No association was seen between acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and breast cancer risk neither unadjusted nor adjusted for the potential confounders HRT duration, parity, BMI, alcohol intake and education. After adjustment for smoking behavior, however, a positive association was seen between acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer with an estimated incidence rate ratio (95% CI) of 2.7 (1.1-6.6) per 10-fold increase in acrylamide-hemoglobin level. A weak association between glycidamide hemoglobin levels and incidence of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer was also found, this association, however, entirely disappeared when acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin levels were mutually adjusted."
- Hogervorst J et al., Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of renal cell, bladder, and prostate cancer, Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1428-38.
- Abstract. "We found some indications for a positive association between dietary acrylamide and renal cell cancer risk. There were no positive associations with bladder and prostate cancer risk."
- Hogervorst J et al., A prospective study of dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov;16(11):2304-13.
- Abstract. "We observed increased risks of postmenopausal endometrial and ovarian cancer with increasing dietary acrylamide intake, particularly among never-smokers. Risk of breast cancer was not associated with acrylamide intake."
- Mucci L et al., Prospective study of dietary acrylamide and risk of colorectal cancer among women, Int J Cancer. 2006 Jan 1;118(1):169-73.
- Abstract. "There has been considerable discourse about whether exposure to acrylamide in foods could increase the risk of human cancer. Acrylamide is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and animal studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of tumors in rats exposed to very high levels. Still, epidemiologic data of the effect of dietary acrylamide remain scant. We have undertaken the first prospective study of acrylamide in food and risk of colon and rectal cancers using prospective data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. The cohort comprised 61,467 women at baseline between 1987 and 1990. Through 2003, the cohort contributed 823,072 person-years, and 504 cases of colon and 237 of rectal cancer occurred. Mean intake of acrylamide through diet was 24.6 mug/day (Q25-70 = 18.7-29.9). Coffee (44%), fried potato products (16%), crisp bread (15%) and other breads (12%) were the greatest contributors. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no association between estimated acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer. Comparing extreme quintiles, the adjusted relative risks (95% CI; p for trend) were for colorectal cancer 0.9 (0.7-1.3; p = 0.80), colon cancer 0.9 (0.6-1.4; p = 0.83) and rectal cancer 1.0 (0.6-1.8; p = 0.77). Furthermore, intake of specific food items with elevated acrylamide (e.g., coffee, crisp bread and fried potato products) was not associated with cancer risk. In this large prospective study, we found no evidence that dietary intake of acrylamide is associated with cancers of the colon or rectum. Epidemiologic studies play an important role in assessing the possible health effects of acrylamide intake through food."
- Pelucchi C et al., Dietary acrylamide and human cancer, Int J Cancer. 2006 Jan 15;118(2):467-71.
- Abstract. " Low levels of acrylamide have been found in several foods cooked at high temperatures. While there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acrylamide in experimental animals, the few epidemiologic studies conducted to date on occupational and dietary exposure to acrylamide have found no consistent evidence of association with human cancer risk. Using data from an integrated network of Italian and Swiss hospital-based case-control studies, we analyzed the relation between dietary acrylamide intake and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (749 cases, 1,772 controls), esophagus (395 cases, 1,066 controls), large bowel (1,394 cases of colon, 886 cases of rectal cancer, 4,765 controls), larynx (527 cases, 1,297 controls), breast (2,900 cases, 3,122 controls), ovary (1,031 cases, 2,411 controls) and prostate (1,294 cases, 1,451 controls). All the studies included incident, histologically confirmed cancer cases and controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute nonneoplastic conditions. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for energy intake and other major covariates of interest. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake were 1.12 (95% CI = 0.76-1.66) for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx, 1.10 (95% CI = 0.65-1.86) for esophageal, 0.97 (95% CI = 0.80-1.18) for colorectal, 1.23 (95% CI = 0.80-1.90) for laryngeal, 1.06 (95% CI = 0.88-1.28) for breast, 0.97 (95% CI = 0.73-1.31) for ovarian and 0.92 (95% CI = 0.69-1.23) for prostate cancer. None of the trend in risk was significant. This uniquely large and comprehensive data set does not show any consistent association between intake of acrylamide and the risk of breast and several other common cancers."
- Rice J., The carcinogenicity of acrylamide, Mutat Res. 2005 Feb 7;580(1-2):3-20.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide is carcinogenic to experimental mice and rats, causing tumors at multiple organ sites in both species when given in drinking water or by other means. In mice, acrylamide increases the incidence of alveologenic lung tumors and initiates skin tumors after dermal exposures. In two bioassays in rats, acrylamide administered in drinking water consistently induced peritesticular mesotheliomas, thyroid follicular cell tumors, and mammary gland tumors, as well as primary brain tumors when all such tumors were included in data analysis. In one of the rat bioassays, increased numbers of adrenal pheochromocytomas, adenomas of pituitary and clitoral glands, papillomas of the oral cavity, and adenocarcinomas of the uterus also occurred. In both humans and experimental animals, a significant fraction of ingested acrylamide is converted metabolically to the chemically reactive and genotoxic epoxide, glycidamide, which is likely to play an important role in the carcinogenicity of acrylamide. No studies on the carcinogenicity of glycidamide have been published, but bioassays of this compound are in progress. Epidemiologic studies of possible health effects from exposures to acrylamide have not produced consistent evidence of increased cancer risk, in either occupationally exposed workers or the general populations of several countries in which acrylamide is present in certain foods and beverages. A doubling of risk for pancreatic cancer was observed in the most highly exposed workers within the largest industrial cohort, but no consistent exposure-response relationships were identified. Retrospective re-analyses of previously conducted case-control studies of cancer incidence in several European populations have identified no causal relationship between consumption of foods or beverages that contain acrylamide and the incidence of cancers at various sites including kidney, large bowel, urinary bladder, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, breast, and ovary. These retrospective studies of cancer incidence in relation to acrylamide in food have limited power to detect increased cancer risks, and have been criticized on various grounds, but they do indicate that no major cancer risks are attributable to intake of acrylamide in Western diets."
- Mucci L et al., Dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer, Int J Cancer. 2004 May 1;109(5):774-6.
- Abstract. "The detection of acrylamide, classified as a probable human carcinogen, in commonly consumed foods created public health alarm. Thus far, only 2 epidemiologic studies have examined the effect of dietary acrylamide on cancer risk. Presently, we reanalyzed data from a large population-based Swedish case-control study of renal cell cancer. Food frequency data were linked with national food databases on acrylamide content, and daily acrylamide intake was estimated for participants. The risk of renal cell cancer was evaluated for intake of food items with elevated acrylamide levels and for total daily acrylamide dose. Adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence that food items with elevated acrylamide, including coffee (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4-1.1), crisp breads (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.6-1.6) and fried potatoes (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.7), were associated with a higher risk of renal cell cancer risk. Furthermore, there was no association between estimated daily acrylamide intake through diet and cancer risk (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.8; p for trend = 0.8). The results of this study are in line with the 2 previous studies examining dietary acrylamide and suggest there is no association between dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer."
- Erdreich L and Friedman M, Epidemiologic evidence for assessing the carcinogenicity of acrylamide, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (39:2;150-157), April 2004.
- Abstract. "Acrylamide (ACM) has recently been found in fried and baked foods, suggesting widespread public exposure. ACM is an industrial chemical that causes neurotoxicity in humans and an increase in benign tumors of the endocrine system of laboratory rats. The U.S. EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have designated ACM as a probable human carcinogen based on the bioassay data and evidence for a DNA reactive mechanism. We report here an assessment of the published epidemiological data with regard to exposure to ACM. The results of an epidemiology mortality study of heavily exposed workers published in 1999 failed to reveal any increase in total cancer in this workforce. The average total exposure in the exposed group was equivalent to over 100% of the estimated average lifetime dietary intake, assuming a U.S. diet. However, this epidemiologic information had limited power to detect modest increases in specific tumors of the type reported in the rodent studies. Although the mortality study could not have picked up the small increases in cancer or in specific cancer types predicted by EPA’s linear extrapolation model, research on biochemical and physiological mechanisms suggests that EPA’s assessment overstates the potency, and therefore, the risk from foods and other sources of exposure may be lower than previously anticipated."
- Pelucchi C et al., Fried potatoes and human cancer, Int J Cancer. 2003 Jul 1;105(4):558-60.
- Abstract. "A considerable public concern about cancer risk from acrylamide-rich foods followed the announcement that high concentrations of acrylamide are found in fried potatoes and potato chips and, more generally, in starch-containing foods cooked at high temperatures. From a series of hospital-based case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2000, we have analyzed the relation between intake of fried/baked potatoes and cancer risk. The cancer sites considered were oral cavity and pharynx (749 cases, 1772 controls), esophagus (395 cases, 1066 controls), larynx (527 cases, 1297 controls), large bowel (1225 colon and 728 rectum cases, 4154 controls), breast (2569 cases, 2588 controls) and ovary (1031 cases, 2411 controls). All cancer cases were incident and histologically confirmed. Controls were subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals of cases for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. All the odds ratios (OR) for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of intake ranged between 0.8-1.1. We found no evidence of interaction with age, gender, alcohol and tobacco use. Our data provide reassuring evidence for the lack of an important association between consumption of fried/baked potatoes and cancer risk."
- Mucci L et al., Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder: absence of an association in a population-based study in Sweden, Br J Cancer. 2003 Jan 13;88(1):84-9.
- Abstract. "Recently, disturbingly high levels of acrylamide were unexpectedly detected in widely consumed food items, notably French fries, potato crisps, and bread. Much international public concern arose since acrylamide has been classified as a probable carcinogen, although based chiefly on laboratory evidence; informative human data are largely lacking. We reanalysed a population-based Swedish case-control study encompassing cases with cancer of the large bowel (N=591), bladder (N=263) and kidney (N=133), and 538 healthy controls, assessing dietary acrylamide by linking extensive food frequency data with acrylamide levels in certain food items recorded by the Swedish National Food Administration. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, adjusting for potential confounders. We found consistently a lack of an excess risk, or any convincing trend, of cancer of the bowel, bladder, or kidney in high consumers of 14 different food items with a high (range 300-1200 microg kg(-1)) or moderate (range 30-299 microg kg(-1)) acrylamide content. Likewise, when we analysed quartiles of known dietary acrylamide intake, no association was found with cancer of the bladder or kidney. Unexpectedly, an inverse trend was found for large bowel cancer (P for trend 0.01) with a 40% reduced risk in the highest compared to lowest quartile. We found reassuring evidence that dietary exposure to acrylamide in amounts typically ingested by Swedish adults in certain foods has no measurable impact on risk of three major types of cancer. It should be noted, however, that relation of risk to the acrylamide content of all foods could not be studied."
- Whelan E, Mother Nature's Chemical Bounty, New York Post, November 22, 2007.
- Whelan E, Half-Baked Science on Acrylamide, American Council on Science and Health, April 25, 2007.
- Whelan E, Cereal Killers, American Council on Science and Health, August 1, 2006.
- Whelan E, Top 10 Reasons Not To Put Cancer Warnings on Fries and Chips, American Council on Science and Health, September 21, 2005.
- Health Group Decries California Acrylamide Lawsuit, American Council on Science and Health, August 30, 2005.
- Facts Versus Fears (Fourth Edition) A Review of the Greatest Unfounded Health Scares of Recent Times, American Council on Science and Health, September 28, 2004.
- Miller H, The Boy Who Cried Rodent Carcinogen, American Council on Science and Health, August 4, 2002.
- Milloy S, French Fry Scare, Part II, FoxNews.com, June 28, 2002.
- Kava R, Low-Fact Diet: The Acrylamide Case, American Council on Science and Health, June 20, 2002.
- Milloy S, The Great Potato Chip Scare, FoxNews.com, April 26, 2002.
- Rosen J, Acrylamide in Food: Is It a Real Threat to Public Health?, American Council on Science and Health, February 1, 2002.