Studies and Reports
- Tardiff R, Updated weight of evidence for an association between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to disinfection by-products, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (45:2;185-205), July 2006.
- Abstract. "Disinfection by-products (DBP) are produced when water is treated with chemical disinfectants. Some toxicological and epidemiological studies suggest an association between DBP exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects. In a previous critical review, [Graves, C.G., Matanoski, G.M., Tardiff, R.G., 2001. Weight of evidence for an association between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to disinfection by-products: a critical review. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 34, (2) 103-124] evaluated the weight of evidence for this exposure and these effects. This investigation updates the previous evaluation and considers all toxicological and epidemiological evidence since the earlier review and reassesses the weight-of-evidence for all of the data on the various effects, outcome by outcome. The updated toxicity weight of evidence found little indication of previously unreported reproductive or developmental toxicity. In particular, the recently published findings of an exceptionally well conducted cohort study of broad scope found no impact of chlorination by-products on the highly controversial outcome of spontaneous abortion, unlike predecessor studies of more limited methodology, leading the authors to recommend no further epidemiologic pursuit for this hypothesis since the cohort was scrutinized very closely and dispelled any concern of such an association. The updated epidemiologic weight of evidence demonstrated that no association with DBP exposure exists for over a dozen outcomes including low and very low birth weight, preterm delivery, some specific congenital anomalies, and neonatal death. The analysis found inconsistent or very weak results for all congenital anomalies/birth defects, all central nervous system anomalies, neural tube defects, and spontaneous abortion. As in the previous article, the updated weight of evidence suggested a positive association with DBP exposure and some measure of growth retardation such as intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, term low birth weight, and small body length or head circumference. Exposure assessment in most epidemiological studies remains inadequate to definitively demonstrate any association of small magnitude."
- Kerger B et al., Airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in homes with refrigeration-type and evaporative cooling systems, J Toxicol Environ Health A. 26;68(6):401-29, March 2005.
- Abstract. " This study evaluates airborne concentrations of common trihalomethane compounds (THM) in selected living spaces of homes supplied with chlorinated tap water containing >85 ppb total THM. Three small homes in an arid urban area were selected, each having three bedrooms, a full bath, and approximately 1000 square feet; two homes had standard (refrigeration-type) central air conditioning and the third had a central evaporative cooling system ("swamp cooler"). A high-end water-use pattern was used at each home in this exposure simulation. THM were concurrently measured on 4 separate test days in tap water and air in the bathroom, living room, the bedroom closest to the bathroom, and outside using Summa canisters. Chloroform (trichloromethane, TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) concentrations were quantified using U.S. EPA Method TO-14. The apparent volatilization fraction consistently followed the order: TCM > BDCM > DBCM. Relatively low airborne THM concentrations (similar to outdoors) were found in the living room and bedroom samples for the home with evaporative cooling, while the refrigeration-cooled homes showed significantly higher THM levels (three- to fourfold). This differential remained after normalizing the air concentrations based on estimated THM throughput or water concentrations. These findings indicate that, despite higher throughput of THM-containing water in homes using evaporative coolers, the higher air exchange rates associated with these systems rapidly clears THM to levels similar to ambient outdoor concentrations."
- Kerger B et al., Assessment of airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in residential showers and baths, Risk Anal. 20(5):637-51, October 2000.
- Abstract. "This study evaluates airborne concentrations of common trihalomethane (THM) compounds in bathrooms during showering and bathing in homes supplied with chlorinated tap water. Three homes in an urban area were selected, each having three bedrooms, a full bath, and approximately 1,000 square feet of living area. THMs were concurrently measured in tap water and air in the shower/bath enclosure and the bathroom vanity area using Summa canisters. Chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM) were quantified using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method TO-14. Air samples were collected prior to, during, and after the water-use event for 16 shower and 7 bath events. Flow rate and temperature were measured, but not controlled. The increase in average airborne concentration (+/- standard error) during showers (expressed as microg/m3 in shower enclosure or bathroom air per microg/L in water) was 3.3+/-0.4 for TCM, 1.8+/-0.3 for BDCM, and 0.5+/-0.1 for CDBM (n = 12), and during baths was 1.2+/-0.4 for TCM, 0.59+/-0.21 for BDCM, and 0.15+/-0.05 for CDBM (n = 4). The relative contribution of each chemical to the airborne concentrations was consistent for all shower and bath events, with apparent release of TCM > BDCM > CDBM. The results are therefore consistent with their relative concentration in tap water and their vapor pressures. When the shower findings for TCM are normalized for water concentration, flow rate, shower volume, and duration, the average exposure concentrations in these urban residences are about 30% lower than those reported by other investigators using EPA analytical methods. This difference is likely attributable primarily to greater air exchange rates in residential shower/bath stalls compared to more "airtight" laboratory shower chambers. This appears to be the first field study to thoroughly evaluate THM exposures from residential showers and baths, and can be used to validate previously published models of tap water volatile chemical transfer to indoor air."
- Milloy S, Enviros, Homeland Security Threaten Drinking Water Safety, FoxNews.com, June 14, 2005.
- Milloy S, Chlorine Crackdown Causes Lead Leaks, FoxNews.com, April 2, 2004.
- Milloy S, Chemical Plant Insecurity, FoxNews.com, May 9, 2003.