Steve Milloy is:
- an environmental and public health policy consultant;
- the founder and publisher of JunkScience.com, GreenHellBlog.com, and Debunkosaurus.com;
- the author of:
- Green Hell: How Environmentalists Plan to Control Your Life and What You Can Do to Stop Them, Regnery 2009 — an Amazon.com Top 100 seller;
- Junk Science Judo: Self-defense Against Health Scares and Scams, Cato Institute, 2001;
- Silencing Science, with co-author Michael Gough, Cato Institute, 1999 — an Amazon.com Top 100 seller;
- Science Without Sense: The Risky Business of Public Health Research, Cato Institute, 1995;
- Science-Based Risk Assessment: A Piece of the Superfund Puzzle, National Environmental Policy Institute, 1995;
- Over 500 articles/columns published in major newspapers/web sites, including the Wall Street Journal, Investor's Business Daily, FOXNews.com, Financial Times (UK), National Post (Canada), USA Today, Los Angeles Times, Washington Times, New York Post, New York Sun and other print and web outlets.
- a co-founder and portfolio manager of the Free Enterprise Action Fund, the first pro-free enterprise activist mutual fund, 2004-2009;
- the junk science columnist for FOXNews.com, 2000-2009; and
- a business columnist for the New York Sun (2005).
Since April 1, 1996, JunkScience.com has led the fight against junk science, including being named.
- a "Top Resource" and one of the "Most Popular" health news web sites by Yahoo!;
- "One of the 50 Best Web Sites" by Popular Science (August 1998);
- Popular Science magazine's plaudit. "Noted junk science expert Steven Milloy leads a spirited debate over the latest "scientific" revelations regarding environmental, health and nutritional hazards, among other topics."
- a "Hot Pick" by Science, April 1998: Vol. 280 no. 5361 p. 171.
- Science magazine's plaudit. "Page of contempt. Self-appointed bad science debunker Steve Milloy skewers studies on everything from the risks of diet drugs to global warming on The Junk Science Home Page (http://www.junkscience.com/). Although Milloy's acerbic wit makes some researchers' blood boil, others find many of his points valid—or at least entertaining.
The following notable individuals and/or organizations have endorsed Milloy's work:
Eminent Scientists and Public Health Heroes
- Philip Abelson, Phd, Editor, Science, 1962-1984, winner of the National Medal of Science, Co-discoverer of Neptunium: "... Milloy is one of a small group who devotes time, energy and intelligence to the defense of truth and science. His current book deserves widespread reading, quotation and responsive action,"' from the back cover of Junk Science Judo.
- Donald H. Henderson, M.D., Deans, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, 1977-1990, Director, UN Global Smallpox Eradication Program, National Medal of Science: "(Milloy's Silencing Science is) a perceptive and eminently readable book... remarkable insights into the manipulation of science for other than laudable ends," from the back cover of Silencing Science.
- Frederick Seitz, PhD, First President, National Academy of Sciences: "This valuable book (Junk Science Judo) deals in a thorough manner with one of the serious scientific problems of our times, the intentional distortion of the methods of science in attempts to reach conclusions that are not justified by qualified scientific research...," from the back cover of Junk Science Judo.
Statesmen & Business Leaders
- Steve Forbes, President and Chief Executive Officer of Forbes: “Green Hell is the `inconvenient truth’ on extremist, growth-killing environmentalism. A must-read for those interested in keeping America free and prosperous," from the back cover of Green Hell. About the Free Enterprise Action Fund: "... it's precept is a sound one," from "Fact and Comment," Forbes, April 24, 2006.
- Jonathan Hoenig, CapitalistPig Asset Management: "Green Hell... is a brash and gutsy repudiation of the environmental dogma now integrated into almost every aspect of modern life... Throughout this bold, tightly written, well-researched book, Milloy illustrates the overriding goal of the Green movement: Not to preserve nature for man, but to protect nature from man. Green Hell astutely unmasks the dangerous ramifications of that philosophy," from Not Easy — or Smart — Being Green, May 9, 2009.
- Vaclav Klaus, President of the European Union and President of the Czech Republic: “(Green Hell) describes why the world can’t afford to fall for global warming alarmism and environmental hysteria. Steve Milloy shows how to avoid the environmentalists’ vision of our future,” from the back cover of Green Hell.
- Barron's. (Green Hell is a) "convincing book," from Big Questions, Five Good Answers, February 5, 2011.
- Fred Barnes, Executive Editor, the Weekly Standard: “Green Hell explains why Americans can’t afford to fall for Al Gore’s `the debate is over’ line on global warming. While we’re all for the environment, Green Hell explains why we need to oppose the environmentalists,” from the back cover of Green Hell.
- Neil Cavuto, Fox News: "Steve Milloy wrote the definitive book on [modern environmentalism]...", September 1, 2011.
- Peter Foster, National Post (Canada) columnist: "‘Thank Gaia for Steve Milloy…," from "Breaking out of green hell", June 19, 2009.
- Investor's Business Daily: "... so long as (the corruption of science) continues, it's a threat to future discoveries of real merit as well as to our freedoms. Daylight helps, as does transparency-encouraging critical websites, such as Steve Milloy's junkscience.com," from a A Banner Day for Junk Science, January 6, 2011.
- Nuclear Street: "Sometimes a guy has to step back, take a long deep breath and reassess everything he thought he knew as fact. Some people conduct this exercise without even thinking, critically examining all that floats their way with the dispassionate eyes of an objective observer. Christopher Columbus did it. Galileo Galilei did it. Charles Darwin did it. Albert Einstein did it. And the world has not been the same since. Now, Steve Milloy does it…," from NS Book Review of Green Hell, July 2, 2009.
- Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. "Kudos to JunkScience.com's Steve Milloy for debunking suspect blame-mankind research behind demonization of humanity's mercury emissions," from ... Vapors over vapors, April 21, 2011.
- Rolling Stone. Milloy is a "leading debunker" of global warming alarmism, from the November 17, 2005 issue.
- John Stossel, correspondent, ABC News and Fox Business News: "I wish Junk Science Judo had been available when I was doing daily consumer reports. It hits the nail on the head about the media's role in health scares and scams. I wish all consumer and reporters would read it," from the back cover of Junk Science Judo.
- Marc Morano, Climate Depot. "(Milloy is) the godfather," from This Man Wants to Convince You Global Warming Is a Hoax, Esquire, March 30, 2010.
- Dick Morris, Fox News commentator and former political consultant to Bill Clinton: “Regardless of whether you believe global warming is a fraud, the fact is that the current depression, the past spike in oil prices, and the coming technology of electric cars are all going to solve whatever problem exists. Liberals want to use climate change as an excuse to take over the economy and regulate everything and this book exposes their plans,” from the back cover of Green Hell.
- Penn Gillette of Penn & Teller: "(Silencing Science) is a way funny book written by heroes," from the back cover of Silencing Science.
- Rich Trzupek, FrontPageMag.com: "...Milloy is a hero. Using his website, junkscience.com, to deliver his message, Milloy has been a key soldier in the front lines of the battle to maintain the kind of healthy skepticism that is a critical component of scientific endeavor. It’s not overstating the case to say that Milloy, along with Climate Audit’s Steve McIntyre and Joe Bast’s Heartland Institute, laid the groundwork for an increasingly skeptical public to ask the tough, uncomfortable questions that are making global warming zealots squirm...", from "The Heretics".
Media and Other Activities
- Has testified on risk assessment and Superfund before the U.S. Congress and has lectured before numerous organizations.
- Has appeared local, national and international television and radio including:
- ABC's World News Tonight with Peter Jennings and Good Morning America;
- CNBC's Kudlow & Co. and SquawkBox;
- CNN's Crossfire and Talk Back Live;
- CNN International's Insight;
- MSNBC's News with Brian Williams;
- FOX Business Channel's Bulls & Bears, Cavuto, Dagen & Connell, Freedom Watch, Lou Dobbs and Varney & Co.;
- FOX News Channel's Glenn Beck, Fox Report with Shepard Smith, Fox and Friends, The O'Reilly Factor, Special Report with Brit Hume, Red Eye with Greg Gutfeld, and Your World With Neal Cavuto;
- Comedy Central's The Daily Show;
- National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation, the Glenn Beck Program, the G. Gordon Liddy Show, the Dennis Miller Show and many other national and local television and radio programs.
- Was a featured panelist at the Wall Street Journal's first ECO:nomics conference in 2008; and
- Was a member of the judging panel for the 2004 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Journalism Awards: Online Category'.
Wins, Accomplishments and Memorable Moments (under development)
- The report that started it all: "Choices in Risk Assessment." Following the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) faced clean-up costs for its nuclear weapons sites amounting to hundreds of billions of dollars. The high costs would largely have been incurred because of EPA standards that essentially would have required the former weapons sites be returned to “Garden of Eden” status. At the time, the DOE took the EPA standards so seriously that it was actually developing essentially a giant vacuum cleaner to suck-up the top layer of sand at the Nevada Test Site (approximately 5,400 square miles in size), decontaminate it and replace the sand. Overwhelmed by the magnitude of the clean-ups, the Bush administration DOE commissioned Milloy in 1992 to lead an investigation into whether EPA clean-up standards were based on science or politics. Milloy’s team of science and policy experts (called the Regulatory Information Analysis Project) compiled a report titled, “Choices in Risk Assessment: The Role of Science Policy in the Environmental Risk Management Process.” Completed in the fall of 1994, the report concluded that environmental policy was largely based on politics, not science. But when the report was completed and circulated for review within the Clinton administration-run DOE, the report was flagged as politically incorrect and Milloy was ordered by staffers of Clinton appointee Carol Henry (a former EPA staffer) to keep the report secret. Sacrificing his business relationship with the Clinton DOE, Milloy disobeyed the order and released the report, which was subsequently featured in a Wall Street Journal editorial. The attention that “Choices in Risk Assessment” garnered coincided with the Republican takeover of 104th Congress and congressional focus on regulatory reform, vaulting Milloy into the regulatory reform debate about to take place on Capitol Hill. Milloy testified before the U.S. Senate about risk assessment in the context of DOE clean-up on March 6, 1995. The DOE never wound up spending hundreds of billions of dollars to clean up its weapons sites. No word on what ever happened to the giant NTS vacuum cleaner.
- Prevented the EPA from Stalin-izing statistical significance. In May 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed to update its guidelines for conducting cancer risk assessments. Milloy discovered that the EPA surrepticiously deleted the requirement that epidemiologic data be statistically significant before they can be used to infer cause-and-effect relationships. Statistical significance was a sore spot with the EPA since it had given the EPA fits with respect to the epidemiologic studies on secondhand smoke. When Milloy asked the EPA whether it intended to delete the requirement or whether the omission was innocent, the EPA denied the requirement had been deleted. When other members of the public inquired about the deletion/omission, the EPA denied it. When members of Congress inquired about the deletion, the EPA again denied it. The persistent Milloy publicized the issue to great effect and and brought the issue before the EPA's Science Advisory Board which rejected the EPA's denials. In its review letter to EPA administrator Carol Browner, the SAB wrote in polite bureaucrat-ese: "There is (in the proposed guidelines) no explicit statement in the proposal that statistical significance should be a basic requirement for determining causality. This lack of an explicit statement has been interpreted as misleading and implying there is a hidden intent to eliminate statistical significance as a consideration in assessing causality. Adding appropriate and specific language concerning statistical significance should rectify this problem." When the guidelines were finalized in 2005, the statistical significance requirement had been reinstated in Section 220.127.116.11 Evidence for Causality: "The general evaluation of the strength of the epidemiological evidence reflects consideration not only of the magnitude of reported effects estimates and their statistical significance, but also of the precision of the effects estimates and the robustness of the effects associations."
- Ousting the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Right before the January 1999 Senate impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton over whether the President had lied when he denied having sex with Monica Lewinsky, the prestigious Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) was preparing to defend President Clinton by publishing in its January 20, 1999 issue an opinion survey purporting to show that the public didn't consider oral sex to be sexual intercourse. Milloy learned of the study's imminent publication five days ahead of publication (January 14, 1999) and broke the news on JunkScience.com. The Washington Times picked up the story, made inquiries at the American Medical Association, and published on its front page a story titled, "AMA Releases Old Survey on Oral Sex Just in Time for President's Trial." Within 24 hours, JAMA editor George Lundberg was fired. In firing Lundberg, the American Medical Association stated, "Dr. Lundberg, through his recent actions, has threatened the historic tradition and integrity of the Journal of the American Medical Association by inappropriately and inexcusably interjecting JAMA into a major political debate that has nothing to do with science or medicine. This is unacceptable." but Lundberg had long used JAMA a vehicle to publish junk science. The study in question, as an example, was a stale, eight-year old study of college students that Lundberg dusted off and rushed to publication in a misquided effort to involve JAMA in President Clinton's impeachment trial. Lundberg's firing sent shock waves throughout the medical journal community.
- Fighting 'secret science'. Fighting 'Secret Science'. JunkScience.com was instrumental in the fight for "data access" -- the right of the public to review taxpayer-funded scientific data used to support federal regulation. Here's one way, JunkScience.com helped. Science magazine reported on April 2, 1999 that,
"Scientists opposing a controversial data-access proposal appear to be headed for a lopsided win in an unusual skirmish--even as their opponents are raffling off prizes to gain allies. Acting on legislation pushed by Senator Richard Shelby (R-AL), the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in January released a controversial proposal to require taxpayer-funded researchers to hand over their raw data to anyone who files a request (Science, 12 February, p. 914). The agency gave the public until 5 April to comment, sparking a furious letter-writing campaign both for and against the proposal. Last month, rule opponents--including most scientific societies--were alarmed to discover that the other side was ahead in the comment contest, in part because it was offering a creative incentive: People who used the Junk Science Web page (www.junkscience.com) to write to OMB could win a subscription to an environmental policy newsletter or the electronic Wall Street Journal. But the tide has turned in the last few weeks: The 1600-and-counting comments OMB has received so far are running 4 to 1 against the rule, says the Washington-based American Association of Universities. Whether the landslide will persuade OMB to rewrite the proposal, however, won't be known until later this year, when it must finalize the rule."
But JunkScience.com didn't give up. Two weeks later, Science reported,
"In an 11th-hour campaign to tip the scales in their favor, supporters of a controversial new data-access law flooded the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in early April with letters supporting its implementation. Many scientists oppose the provision, pushed by Senator Richard Shelby (R-AL), which would force taxpayer-funded researchers to hand over raw data to the public on request (Science, 2 April, p. 23). But when a public comment period closed on 5 April, supporters appeared to have cranked out the majority of more than 10,000 comments sent to OMB, although no exact count was available."
- COP-ped the IPCC's URL. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's third annual "conference of the parties" of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-3) was held in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997 and was hosted at http://www.cop3.org. The fourth conference of the parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-4) was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina in November 1998 and was hosted at http://www.cop4.org. The fifth conference of the parties parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-5) was held in Bonn, Germany -- but couldn't be located at http://www.cop5.org. Why not? Because Milloy bought that address and pointed it at Junkscience.com. The IPCC was forced to construct the web site for the COP-5 conference at the less findable http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop5/.
- Debunking dioxin hysteria courtesy of Ben & Jerry's ice cream. Prompted by Ben & Jerry's claim on its ice cream packaging that there is no safe level of exposure to dioxin, Milloy and Dr. Michael Gough tested Ben & Jerry's World's Best Vanilla ice cream for dioxin and found that a single scoop contained 200 times the amount of dioxin that the EPA said was safe, thereby debunking dioxin hysteria once and for all. Around the time the study was published, the EPA was proposing to classify dioxin as 10 times more carcinogenic than previously considered. That would have made a single scoop of Ben & Jerry's ice cream contain 2,000 times more dioxin than the EPA considered to be safe. Milloy testified before the EPA Science Advisory Board about the study, which had also been presented at the poster session of the Dioxin 2000 conference. The study also made the front page of the Detroit News upon its release. Ben & Jerry's howled about the study and JunkScience.com on its web site for years.
- Gough M and Milloy S, "Dioxin in Ben & Jerry's ice Cream", JunkScience.com, November 8, 1999.
- "Food rules out of sync, study says: Dioxin in ice cream safe, but far exceeds federal standards', Detroit News, November 7, 1999, page A1.
- "Ben & Jerry's dioxin surprise," National Post (Canada), November 11, 1999.
- A Scoop of Debunkey Monkey, Please, FOXNews.com, July 8, 2000.
- 2000 CERES Report, Section 6, Environmental Performance, BenJerry.com, 2000.
- Debunking low-level radiation hysteria courtesy of the U.S. Capitol Building. To expose and debunk low-level radiation fears and over-regulation, Milloy and Dr. Michael Gough measured levels of ionizing radiation emitted in the U.S. Capitol and Library of Congress buildings. Dose rates measured exceeded background radiation levels, ranging as high as 30 microrems per hour. This rate is: (1) up to 550 percent greater than the typical dose rate “at the fence line” around nuclear power plants; (2) about 13,000 times greater than the average individual dose rate from worldwide nuclear power production and the Chernobyl accident; and (3) exceeds the dose rate associated with the radiation protection standards proposed for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste facility by as much as 65 times. Cancer risk for these exposure levels, based on the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of carcinogenesis, qualified the U.S. Capitol Building as a Superfund (toxic waste) site under U.S. EPA guidelines. Based on a letter transmitting these results to Yucca Mountain opponent Sen. Harry Reid, the Architect of the Capitol conducted a survey of the U.S. Capitol Building, pronouncing the building safe. The story was reported in Roll Call (April 16, 2001) and Milloy responded (April 23, 2001). Milloy was also later interviewed on FOX News Channel's Special Report in August 2005.
- Milloy S and Gough M, Radiation Sources at the U.S. Capitol and Library of Congress Buildings, JunkScience.com, March 2001.
- Letter to Harry Reid, March 27, 2001.
- Architect Deals With Fallout Site Posts Misleading Report on Capitol Radiation, Roll Call, April 16, 2001.
- JunkScience report is accurate, Roll Call, April 23, 2001.
- Milloy S, Holy Isotopes! Radiation Levels at Capitol 65 Times EPA Standards for Facility, FOXNews.com, May 4, 2001. See also Milloy S, "Nuclear Power, Capitol Radiation, Washington Times, May 8, 2001.
- FOX News Milloy interview August 10, 2005: Transcript | Video (via MediaMatters.org)
- Co-invented world's first global thermometer. TBD.
- World's First Global Thermometer, FOXNews.com, May 20, 2005.
- First global warming skeptic shareholder resolution. On behalf of the Free Enterprise Action Fund, Milloy drafted and successfully lawyered through the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission the first climate skeptic shareholder resolution over the vigorous challenge of the General Electric Co. Though the resolution didn't pass at the shareholder meeting, it did garner enough votes to compel GE to include it on the ballot for the following year. Milloy continued to successfully defend the FEAF's global warming resolution in 2007 and 2008.
- 'LIve Earth' invasion and first JunkScience.com air raid. Milloy engineered an invasion of Al Gore's "Live Earth" global warming concert on July 7, 2007. Under the name "DemandDebate.com" (so-called because Al Gore famously insisted that the debate over global warming was "over"), Milloy sponsored a group of free-market oriented college students (BureauCrash) to attend the "Live Earth" concert to spread the DemandDebate.com message. The students wore DemandDebate.com T-shirts bearing the slogan "I'm more worried about the intellectual climate." The students took inflatable globe beach balls, bearing the "intellectual climate" phrasing, into the event and let them loose. On live TV coverage of the event and while rock bands played, the DemandDebate.com beachballs were visibly tossed around the crowd, making it into the mosh pit and even on stage. When Al Gore came out to address the crowd, an air plane bearing a banner reading "Don't believe Al Gore. DemandDebate.com" flew over the stadium. The pilot, listening to the event on his satellite radio, revved his engine the moment Al Gore began to speak. Another aerial banner reading "Don't trust Al Gore. DemandDebate.com" also flew in what can be regarded as the first anti-junk science air raid in history. The air raid was noted by media including CNN, the Philadelphia Inquirer and Rush Limbaugh (July 9, 2007 radio broadcast). According to a report in The Record (Bergen County, NJ), "Live Earth" headliner John Mayer "... spent most of his post-performance press conference angrily wondering why people would buy into (DemandDebate.com's) line of reasoning...."
- Banned from CNBC by order of the GE CEO. As a featured panelist at the first Wall Street Journal ECO:nomics conference in March 2008, which also featured General Electric CEO Jeff Immelt, Milloy was scheduled for a televised debate with fellow conference panelist and CERES head Mindy Lubber. The debate was to be moderated by CNBC host Melissa Francis. Though Milloy's Free Enterprise Action Fund had vigorously campaigned for almost three years against GE's support for global warming legislation, including at shareholder meetings where Immelt was publicly questioned, Milloy chatted amiably with Immelt for about 45 minutes at a pre-conference cocktail party, during which time Milloy mentioned to Immelt that he was scheduled to appear on GE-owned CNBC during the conference. Before Milloy's CNBC appearance, however, Immelt was grilled by free market supporters during the conference's opening event. Immelt received such a hard time that Wal-Mart CEO Lee Scott, who witnessed the public drubbing, confessed to a Wall Street Journal host that what happened to Immelt had kept him up all night. When Milloy showed up for his debate with Lubber, he was told that he had been replaced by a Wall Street Journal staffer. Though he had appeared on CNBC many times before Immelt's ban, Milloy has not appeared on CNBC since.
- Spurred Congressional probing of Al Gore's financial conflicts of interest, resulting in false Congressional testimony by Gore. Milloy's April 24, 2009 Human Events column, "Questions for Al Gore," inspired Reps. Marsha Blackburn (R-Tenn.) and Steve Scalise (R-La.) to interrogate Al Gore during his same-day testimony before the House Energy and Commerce Committee in favor of the Waxman-Markey cap-and-trade bill. Gore lied to Blackburn about donating all his climate-related profits to non-profit advocacy groups. Gore lied Scalise about not having any business relationship with Goldman Sachs. Gore was not, however, under oath. Clips of these exchanges have been repeatedly used in various media.
- "Carbon criminal" campaign infuriates a U.S. Senator and touches a CEO. The 111th Congress’ push for cap-and-trade was heavily lobbied by the U.S. Climate Action Partnership – a coalition of big businesses and environmental activist groups. JunkScience.com developed its "Carbon Criminal” campaign featuring “Wanted” posters for 11 of the USCAP member company CEOs. JunkScience.com also commissioned a bobblehead of Exelon Corp. CEO John Rowe as the “Carbon Bandit.” Rowe had publicly boasted of the billions of dollars in windfall profits Exelon anticipated making from cap-and-trade. Rowe was presented with the bobblehead after his testimony before the Senate for Environment and Public Works. Weeks later, EPW Chairman Barbara Boxer attacked JunkScience.com’s “Carbon Criminal” campaign in a December 14, 2009 speech on the Senate floor. During a March speech (video/transcript) at the American Enterprise Institute in which he surprisingly called for the 112th Congress to take no action on energy, Rowe set his bobblehead on the speaker’s podium, and waved it around calling it a “cherished memento.” Did the bobblehead help Rowe re-think his cap-and-trade rentseeking? Only the Carbon Bandit knows.
- Ousting a Pitt anti-fracking activist-researcher. JunkScience.com’s spotlight on anti-fracking activist-researcher Conrad Volz led to Volz’s ouster from the University of Pittsburgh. The JunkScience.com article, “Pitt prof caught off base in new frack attack”, exposed Volz’s flawed research and anti-fracking activism — a combo that was too much for Pitt. This Pittsburgh Tribune-Review news report refers to Canada Free Press’ reprint of the original JunkScience.com article.
- GE CEO admits error in going green. Through the Free Enterprise Action Fund, Milloy launched a six-year long campaign against General Electric CEO Jeff Immelt's decision to lobby for climate legislation. On May 3, 2011, Immelt publicly acknowledged that going "green" was a mistake and that he would stop lobbying for comprehensive climate and energy legislation. Milloy's campaign is described in this Investor's Business Daily op-ed.
- a B.A. in Natural Sciences, Johns Hopkins University;
- a Master of Health Sciences (Biostatistics), Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health;
- a Juris Doctorate, University of Baltimore; and
- a Master of Laws (Securities regulation) from the Georgetown University Law Center.